AGMA B Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing. standard by American Gear Manufacturers Association,. View all product details. Most Recent . 8 Aug AGMA B05 – Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing/钢制齿轮冶金技术 条件. AGMA Metallurgical Specifications for Steel Gearing. AGMA Revision B05, May 3, Complete Document. Metallurgical Specifications for Steel.
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Topics related to gear design and rating, such as case depth, stress numbers, and quality control sampling plans are not included 9923-b05 this document. If that volume stressed in excess of MPa is determined to be 923-h05. While stringers do agma b05 to be larger and therefore more injurious when present in a critically loaded location, it is agma b05 more probable that an injurious micro inclusion will be avma in a agmw location compared to a stringer.
As the stress intensity is reduced, the crack stops, and the agma b05 stress intensity for the material is established. Flexibility is Key to Aftermarket Success. The results indicate agma b05 a 12 to 30 percent weight reduction can be achieved with Ultrapremium steel or a 10 to 35 percent increase in torque capacity with the same gear using Ultrapremium steel.
Figure 1 shows an example of EDS analysis of a macro oxide stringer inclusion.
Gear Design Relevant Cleanness Metrics
All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this document are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the agmw recent editions of the standards shown below. In this method, the three-dimensional distribution of spheres is approximated by first dividing the two-dimensional frequency per unit area, na, data in to K discrete size sets of integer values between 7 and Agma b05 analytical techniques and their resulting outputs are described in the following two sections.
Figure 8 shows a comparison of the number of inclusions greater than 10 mm and greater than 20 mm in square root area per g05 centimeter. As the voice of the U.
Item Detail – AGMA B05 (reaffirmed April 8, )
The formula for calculating the volume density, N Vfor each range N V j is then:. In b05 case, the Z-contrast of these particles against the steel matrix makes them readily detectable. When a solid body is subjected to stress, and there is a crack or a flaw, such as an inclusion, the stress is concentrated in the vicinity of the flaw. Stringers of continuous or intermittent oxide particles see Figure 2upper-right are recorded as macro inclusions, and geometry is recorded as individual stringer lengths and widths.
This paper has illustrated how statistically robust inclusion population data, gathered with SEM automated image analysis, can generate the statistically rich data needed to robustly consider design concerns. From this work, they determined that the stress intensity was related to the square root area of agmq defect in the plane normal to the principal stress, and they developed a agma b05 intensity equation as a function of the square root area of an inclusion as follows:.
The next two are from domestic special bar 293-b05 SBQ steel mills. While stringers do tend to be larger and therefore more injurious when present in a critically loaded location, it is much more probable that an injurious agma b05 inclusion will be located in a critical location compared to a stringer. In order to provide a more direct linkage between gear design and steel cleanness effects on gear fatigue performance, agja further analytical processes can be performed on these automated SEM image analysis data.
This well-established science 293-b05 the physics of solid mechanics stress and strain and the physics of energetic fracture processes to calculate the driving force for propagation of cracks in materials and predict crack behavior. The stress intensity at the crack tip is then 923-h05, and the rate of crack growth is measured.
Monte Carlo atma were run comparing Ultrapremium to SBQ 1 and SBQ 2 in order to assess the afma for light weighting Figure 12 92-b05 increased torque capacity Figure 13 while maintaining fatigue performance. Z-contrast facilitates the automated identification of oxide particles in a steel matrix as a result of the significant difference between the atomic number of iron, with an atomic number of 26, and oxygen, with an atomic number of 8.
As repeated cycles were applied, the crack continued to grow, and the crack tip stress intensity continued to increase. Colonial Tool Group, Inc. Strength and quality of materials ISO In the rating method called out in ASTM E45 Method A, an operator uses a light optical microscope to scan the polished surface of a specimen at times magnification looking for the worst field for each of four inclusion types, with thin and heavy categories for each type.
These limits allow gear designers and producers to select agma b05 suppliers that will meet the minimum expectations for material fatigue performance, but do not provide the data needed by designers to meet ever-increasing demands for high power density gearing agma b05 faced today. From this work, they determined that the stress intensity was related to the square root area of the defect in the plane normal to the principal stress, and they developed a stress intensity equation as a function of the square root area of an inclusion as follows:.
This information agma b05 identifies specifications and requirements for various metallurgical quality grades for through hardened, carburize and hardened, induction and flame hardened, and nitrided gearing. Modern electric arc furnace EAF and vacuum refining Ahma steelmaking technologies have enabled steelmakers to agms steel oxide inclusion cleanness to levels that rival vacuum arc re-melted VAR steels at a fraction of the cost.
It is important to point out that the SEV value is useful in considering what the largest likely inclusion in the steel is, but it does not agma b05 information about the number density of inclusions that exceed a critical value.
Figure 7 shows the calculated mean-free paths for the globular oxide inclusions greater than 10 mm in square root area and stringers longer than mm in length. At the time of initial development, the editions shown were valid. Under high contact stress conditions of approximately MPa, a 10 mm inclusion is 92-b05 to be of a critical size, while for a root bending stress of approximately MPa, ama 20 mm inclusion is predicted to be of a critical size.
Figure 4 compares the sum of micro oxide inclusions greater than 10 and 20 mm square root area, and Figure 5 compares the sum of stringer oxide inclusions greater than and zgma in length. In each case, agka Z-contrast of these particles against the steel matrix makes them readily detectable. Further evaluation at higher magnifications shown in the progression of pictures moving forward to the right shows a fatigue thumbnail, and in the middle of the thumbnail is abma globular oxide micro inclusion that 923-g05 approximately 20 mm in square root area.
This edition of the information sheet, AGMA B05, incorporates changes to item 8, microstructure, of table 1, Metallurgical characteristics for through hardened gearing. The Saltykov  method is a popular and frequently used method to convert area density of spheres to volume density. With SEV analysis, one can use the population of inclusions measured on a limited, but statistically robust set of samples to predict a worst case or maximum likely inclusion size.
This process is repeated for each stringer inclusion type A, B, 9233-b05.
Figure 1 shows an example of EDS analysis of a macro oxide stringer inclusion. This paper has illustrated how statistically robust inclusion population data, gathered with SEM automated image analysis, can generate the statistically rich data needed to robustly consider design concerns.
Forty-eight samples from six locations in the heat are collected from front, agma b05, and back portions of the heat and top and atma positions of the ingot. The reduced variate is a log-log measure of the accumulated inspected area over the set of extreme value samples.
Oxide particles in steel typically consist of aluminum, magnesium, calcium, or silicon oxide compounds or phases. As a result, the SEV value agma b05 best used agma b05 conjunction with other metrics described in the following section.
In b05 laboratory, one can apply known cyclic stress intensity to a crack and evaluate the threshold stress intensity, Agma b05 thor the minimum stress intensity required to begin to drive crack growth.
Ag,a paper has agma b05 how statistically robust inclusion population data, gathered with SEM automated image analysis, can generate the statistically rich data needed to robustly consider design concerns. This is a good assumption with micro globular oxide inclusions but clearly does not work for macro stringer oxide inclusions.