PDF | Ficus carica var. smyrica is the rare fruit trees that depend on pollination wasp Blastophbaga psenes for fertilization and forming fruits. In a way, Estahban’s. PDF | On Jan 1, , F. Kjellberg and others published Longevity of a fig wasp ( Blastophaga psenes). Dynamics of Blastophaga psenes Populations, Availability of Caprifigs, and Fig Endosepsis Caused by Fusarium moniliforme. T. J. Michailides and D. P. Morgan .

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The wasps carry this disease on their wings and body. This olfactory stimulus is specific for the wasps’ host fig in this case, F.

This page was last edited on 14 Novemberat The female then oviposits into a new syconium. Because this nematode is primarily found in the hemocoel of a female wasp, males are not associated with nematodes. Later, the female lays its eggs in the ovaries of another fig by sticking its ovipositor in each flower’s style. Both of these genera pollinate Ficus species of figs.

All female flowers on male tree with ovaries that are not parasitized with wasp eggs will produce seeds and will help pollination and reproduction of that flower. Due to this rush, pollination will become less effective as more pollen falls off of the wasp bodies.

From there, the short life cycle of a B. Then, males start enlarging the fig’s opening. The ants use the fig-fig wasp mutualism to find the fig wasps by detecting an odor that comes from the figs of the male trees. Uses authors parameter Articles with ‘species’ microformats Articles needing expert attention from February All articles needing expert attention Biology articles needing expert attention.


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This can lead to some flowers not being pollinated because some styles are too long. This also implies that the fig wasp population is much more active and larger in the spring.

Retrieved 20 April Yet females’ wings and antennae detach as they enter the opening of a fig. The American Phytopathological Society. Blastophaga psenes Scientific classification Kingdom: Mutualism occurs between fig and fig wasps, which creates a need for specific species of figs to be pollinated by specific species of wasps.

If the wasp does not detect a signal, it will not enter the fig. The larvae become adults around the same time male fig flowers are ready to produce pollen.

Also, the incidences of this fungus are higher when there is a high population of wasps with limited figs. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This layering of ovipositing causes the larvae of P. The mother produces this hyperplastic tissue when she lays the eggs in the syconium. Studies show that wasps on upper surfaces of the leaves were infected with this fungus in higher levels than other wasps. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The number of offspring is low when the entry number of wasps in a syconium is high. Figs emit compounds that the wasps can sense.

This fig can only be pollinated by the symbiotic wasp who has retrieved pollen from another syconium. When the larvae hatch, they develop in the fig ovariescreating a gall. Because the fungus grows on the ostiole, the fungus is transmitted to the wasps’ bodies when the wasp emerges from the syconium through the ostiole.

Universal Chalcidoidea Database

In the phylogenetic tree, the genus of Blastophaga and Wiebesia are very similar. After fertilization, females blastophzga from a syconium with nematodes still in hemocoel along with pollen flakes along her body.


They have no wings and die shortly after.

The enlarged opening enables the females to leave the syconium in search of a new one where to oviposit. Because of this lack of depositing eggs in these female flowers, all female flowers on female trees produce seeds and none produce larva.

Blastophaga – Wikipedia

Because these wasps have such short lives, selection has favored this attraction towards receptive psehes to be easily distinguishable from a few meters. One of the main predators of these wasps is ants. Once wasps emerge from the syconium, they have to figure out how to get to the fig in which they want to deposit their eggs.

They know that most fig wasps are located on male fig trees, so they use that relationship to prey on wasps. These wasps lay fertilized eggs in the syconium of a F. Fundamental and Applied Nematology. The more wasps that pass through one ostiole, the more likely the wasp will contract F. Blastophaga grossorum GravenhorstBlastophaga vaidi Joseph, Cynips psenes Linnaeus, Also, it is near impossible for wasps to emerge from a fig if they cannot perform oviposition.

Wasps usually oviposit into a nearby syconium. These wasps’ native range is in the Palaearctic, including Southern Europe near the Mediterranean Basin.

Uses authors parameter link. However, some ants do not respond to the odor of pssnes for different reasons.