It is thought to have been initially described by Colombian neurosurgeon Salomón Hakim and R D Adams in , although it may actually have been described. Items tagged “hakim-adams triad”. All Results · Articles · Cases; Blank. 1 result found. Case. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Diagnosis certain. Dr Andrei. Hakim S: Algunas observaciones sobre la presion del L.C.R. sindrome Hakim S, Adams RD: The special problem of symptomatic hydrocephalus with normal.

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The presence of normal cerebrospinal fluid CSF pressure and distinctive radiological findings confirmed the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus or Hakims—Adams syndrome. This leads to an increase in intracranial pressure ICP. Create a free personal account to make a comment, download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts and more.

Items tagged “hakim-adams triad”

Some of the features described are On the right image, however, the CSF spaces over the d near the vertex red arrow and the medial cisterns green arrow are widened, a finding consistent with brain atrophy. Degenerative SA Friedreich’s ataxia Ataxia-telangiectasia. The international evidenced-based diagnostic criteria for primary NPH are:.

Predictive value of the cerebrospinal fluid tap-test. Password Please enter Password. Brumback, MD ; Frank W. MB was the junior doctor in charge and made review research.

These can be remembered with the unkind mnemonic Wet, Wacky, and Wobbly. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Normal pressure hydrocephalus remains a controversial entity with often ambiguous imaging findings. MR differential diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease: Case 6 Case 6.


Consequently, all procedures aiming to reduce CSF volume should be preceded dindrome careful medical history taking and brain imaging notably MRI T2-weighed sequences. Case 2 Case 2. Diagnosis of hydrocephalus is confirmed by ultrasonography through the anterior fontanelle in infants and by computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging when the fontanelle is closed.

For a discussion of secondary causes of communicating hydrocephalus, please refer to the article hydrocephalus. The most likely patients to show improvement are those that show only gait disturbance, mild or no incontinence, and mild dementia.

An Evan’s index of more than 0. In selected cases, shunt surgery might be a good treatment option for this condition, but neurological dysfunction reversibility and the probability of long-term shunt responsiveness should be assessed by CSF tap-test before attempting such procedure 2. The disease was first described by Hakim and Adams in Neurosurgery 61 6: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

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Normal pressure hydrocephalus | Radiology Reference Article |

A classic neurological dr in NPH is magnetic gait, where the patients’ feet appear to be magnetically attached to the floor. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings: In other projects Wikimedia Commons. We completed laboratory investigations by monitoring blood ammonia, thyroid hormones, and morning cortisol levels.

Hydrocephalus was first described by Hippocrates.

The mechanism of normal pressure hydrocephalus – ScienceDirect

Treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus, once the diagnosis is established, is with CSF shunting, usually a ventriculoperitoneal shunt VP shunt. In patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus postoperative cerebral perfusion changes measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging correlate with clinical improvement.

Naloxone test was also attempted to exclude residual fentanyl impregnation, and residual drug induced muscle paralysis was clinically excluded since the patient showed normally oriented four limbs movements in response to painful stimuli. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more.


Lateral ventriculomegaly and periventricular hypointensities. This observation was previously supported by Tsai and coworkers who reported a case of reversible hakum drowsiness and altered consciousness in a year-old male patient suffering from undiagnosed iNPH and successfully treated by shunt surgery 4.

This is caused by distortions predominantly at the frontal lobe and the subcortex. Severe is classified as walking without aids such as cane or wheeled walker is not possible.

Sign in via OpenAthens. Complete blood count showed mild hyperleukocytosis. J Magn Reson Imaging 39 6: Normal pressure hydrocephalus found after anesthesia — a case report. Late stage features include apathy, reduced drive, slowed thinking, and reduced speech. Electroencephalogram showed diffuse non-specific weak cerebral activity with no signs of seizures. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original hakin s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

After CSF volume subtraction soustractionthe patient recovered a normal level of consciousness and was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. It is important to note that although all patients with NPH have enlarged ventricles, not all elderly patients with enlarged ventricles have primary NPH. Surgical procedure consisted of resection of a small intestinal necrotic volvulus. Username Please enter User Name.